The incidence of religious psychosis across religious denominations?
This question interests me, because I have the hypothesis that Catholics, with a higher degree of institutionalized neurosis than Protestants, on the whole, would therefore experience a relatively lower incidence of full-blown religious psychosis, because their institutionalized neuroticism would keep a lid on it, so to speak...
So far, the article that comes closest to answering this question, from my googling so far, with some solid facts and figures, and statistical analysis, seems this one:
(Some excerpts only!)
"MacDonald, C.B., & Luckett, J.B. (1983). Religious affiliation and psychiatric diagnoses. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 22, 15-37. (C/S survey of relationship between religious affiliation (33 types) and psychiatric diagnosis in 7,050 persons terminated from a mid-western psychiatric clinic between 1977-1980; "no religious preference" had the highest proportion of alcoholics, the 2nd highest proportion of drug dependence, but the least number of neurotics, and few marital maladajustment and adjustment reactions (and low rates of anxiety and OCD); "non-mainline Protestants" had the most neuroses (higher rates of depression and OCD) and most adjustment reactions, but the least drug dependence and least alcoholism; mainline protestants had the highest marital adjustment problems and relatively low rates of alcoholism, but high rates of hysterical personality disorder; Catholics had less alcoholism and slightly more neuroses (but high rates of OCD); sects had high rates of psychosis (uncontrolled chi-square associations!!); of particular note is that 43% of the sample reported "No Religious Preference" (compared with 8% nationally), especially given the mid-western location of the study)
"Mackenbach, J.P., Kunst, A.E., Devrij, J.H., & VanMeel, D. (1993). Self-reported morbidity and disability among Trappist and Benedictine monks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 138, 569-573. (case-control study of monks at 7 monasteries in Netherlands, with 134 responses (67%); compared rates of morbidity and disability among monks with all Dutch males by standardized morbidity ratios (SMR), adjusting for age and education; SMR was similar for monks and non-monks (SMR 1.07), but disability by ADL impairment was much higher for 7 of 10 ADLs assessed, after adjustments for age; for trouble sitting down and getting up from chair, SMR was 2.21 (95% CI 1.44-3.32); concluded that a prudent lifestyle may prolong life, but at expense of higher disability)
"MacKenzie, G., & Blaney, R. (1985). Further correlates of problem drinking in Northern Ireland from a population study. International Journal of Epidemiology, 14 (3), 410-414. (C/S survey of probability sample of 3,755 community-dwelling adults in Northern Ireland (1783 males, 1972 females); regression analysis found that male drinkers more likely to be Catholic; no discussion of religious finding)
*[MacLean, C.R.K., Walton, K.G., Wenneberg, S.R., Levitsky, D.K., Nandarino, J.V., Waziri, R., & Schneider, R.H. (1994). Altered responses of cortisol, GH, TSH and testosterone to acute stress after four months' practice of transcendental meditation (TM). Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 746, 381-384.]
"Maes, H. H., Neale, MC, Martin, NG, Heath, AC, Eaves, L. J. (1999). Religious attendance and frequency of alcohol use: same genes or same environments: a bivariate extended twin kinship model. Twin Research, 2, 169-179. (Investigators examined whether the inverse relationship between religious attendance and alcohol use was driven by genetic or environmental factors. Data on these two variables were attained from twins and their families in the Virginia 30,000 study. A bivariate model of family resemblance was fitted to the data using Mx. Results indicated that genetic factors primarily account for the relationship between alcohol and church attendance in males, while shared environmental factors, including cultural transmission and genotype-environment covariance, are stronger determinants of this association in women.
"Magaletta, P.R., Duckro, P.N., & Staten, S.F. (1997). Prayer in office practice: On the theshold of integration. Journal of Family Practice, 44, 254-256. (opinion, discussion: Physicians must pay close attention to patients' varying levels of intimacy and mutual willingness for discussion when addressing these issues and/or acting on them. For example, the patients' wishes must be considered before the physician offers his or her own private prayers. If the physician would prescribe prayer for the patient, then he/she must be cautious this does not increase the patient's sense of guilt or fear of a poor prognosis.)
"Magee, J.J. (1987). Determining the predictors of life satisfaction among retired nuns: Report from a pilot project. Journal of Religion and Aging, 4(1), 39-49. C/S survey of a "random" sample of 150 retired nuns aged 71-85 in New York (method of sampling was not given); life satisfaction measured by Life Satisfaction Index-Z scale; 30.7% with high life satisfaction, 50% as moderate LS, and 19% as low LS; multiple regression used to identify predictors of life satisfaction; holding an administrative or governance position in one's congregation before retiring (the only religious variable measured) was significantly related to LS (p<.05) when list-wise regression used, but this association disappeared when step-wise regression used)
"Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I, Jewell, T., Swank, A. B., Scott, E., Emery, E., Rye, M. (1999). Marriage and the spiritual realm: the role of proximal and distal religious constructs in marital functioning. Journal of Family Psychology, 13, 321-328. (97 couples completed questionnaires about their joint religious activities and perceptions regarding the sanctification of marriage, such as perceived sacred qualities of marriage and beliefs about the manifestation of God in marriage (proximal religious constructs). Individual religiousness and religious homogamy (distal religious constructs) did not predict marital outcomes as strongly as proximal religious constructs. Proximal religious variables were associated with greater global marital adjustment, perceived benefits from marriage, less marital conflict, more verbal collaboration, and less use of verbal aggression and stalemate to discuss disagreements. Proc small measures added substantial unique variance (R-square change) ranging from .06 to .48 after controlling for demographic factors and distal religious variables.
"Mallory, M. (1977). Christian Mysticism: Transcending Techniques. Amsterdam: Van Gorcum Assen (don't have it) (44 nuns and 9 friars from a Carmelite order whose primary activity is contemplative prayer; mysticism scores correlated positively with extraversion (r=0.23) and happiness (r=0.41); prayers associated with rational processes, however, were significantly correlated with mental distress); in a subsample of 14 enlisted for EEG recordings during prayer, a significant reduction in alpha abundance during prayer was found (p<.04), although this study was criticized for her use of statistical techniques)
"Maltby, J. (1997). Personality correlates of religiosity among adults in the Republic of Ireland. Psychological Reports, 81 (3, Part 1), 827-831.
Malzberg, B. (1973). Mental disease among Jews in New York state, 1960-1961. Acta Psychiatry Scandinavica, 49, 479-518. (largest U.S. Jewish population is found in New York State; compares incidence of mental disease among Jews and white non-Jews in NY State; based on 1st admissions to all mental hospitals in NY State during 1959-1961 (5,514 Jewish and 34,707 non-Jewish white first admissions); involutional depression and manic depressive illness made up more of the total proportion of cases among Jews than among non-Jews (12.1% and 5.8% vs 7.5% and 2.5%, respectively for native born) (18.6% and 3.9% vs 10.0% and 1.6%, respectively for foreign born); concluded that Jews had higher incidence of involutional psychoses and manic-depressive illness than non-Jews)
"Mandell, AJ (1980). Toward a psychobiology of transcendence: God in the brain. In Davidson, JM, & Davidson, R. J. (editors), The Psychobiology of Consciousness. New York: Plenum Press
*[Mandle (1984)........] (religious people commit suicide less often than non-religious)
"Manfredi, C., & Pickett, M. (1987). Perceived stressful situations and coping strategies utilized by the elderly. Journal of Community Health Nursing, 4, 99-110. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of 51 persons aged 60 or over in Rhode Island (senior citizen housing complex); the 66-item Ways of Coping Checklist, after identifying a stressful event he/she experienced in past month; prayer was the most frequently used strategy to cope in a field of 66 coping strategies)
"Mansfield, C., Mitchell, J., King, D. E. (1997). The doctor as God's mechanic? Beliefs of a southeastern role population. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the North American Primary Care Research Group, November 14, 1997, Orlando, Florida. (Reliance on religion and spirituality as a coping mechanism among the elderly is supported by this epidemiological survey--Mansfield and colleagues documented an increased reliance on prayer and religious faith among patients who perceived a decline in their health status)
"Manusov, E.G., Carr. R.J., Rowane, M., Beatty, L.A., & Nadeau, M.T. (1995). Dimensions of happiness: A qualitative study of family practice residents. Journal of the American Board of Family Practice, 8, 367-375. (Q) (religion or religious commitment was mentioned by many of the 59 residents (years 1-3) as a contributor to their happiness and well-being in four different sites (Cleveland, Washington DC, Charlotte, NC, Bethesda)
Maranell, G.M. (1974). Religiosity and personality adjustment. In Responses to Religion. Lawrence: The University Press of Kansas (109 students; examined 8 measures of different types of religiousness; two dimensions were consistently related to mental pathology (superstition and ritualism); measures of church orientation, altruism, fundamentalism, theism, idealism, and mysticism were unrelated; he concluded that religious persons are likely to be less well-adjusted than non-religious persons, although data do not support that conclusions, since if multiple comparisons are taken into consideration, there were no significant findings - reported in Bergin 1983, p 180)
"Marcus, P., & Rosenberg, A. (1995). The value of religion in sustaining the self in extreme situations. Psychoanalytic Review, 82, 81-105. (Kohut has noted that Freud "ignored the supportive aspects of religion. Religion consitutes a set of cultural values which he totally underestimated (Kohut, 1985, p 261)"; these authors examine the behavior of believing and practicing "traditional" Jewish inmates in Nazi concentration and death camps; self psychology is used to understand the religious experience in these extreme situations)
"Markides, K.S., Levin, J.S., & Ray, L.A. (1987). Religion, aging, and life satisfaction: an eight-year, three-wave longitudinal study. The Gerontologist, 27, 660-665. (8-year prospective cohort study of 511 Mexican-Americans and Anglos age 60 or over interviewed at 3 time points during this period (aim is to see if religious variables become stronger predictors of life satisfaction with aging); cross-sectional analyses using multiple regression conducted in 1976 (T1), 1980 (T2), and 1984 (T3); there were 230 respondents who participated in all three Waves; frequency of private prayer (single item), self-rated religiosity (single item), and church attendance (single item); regression results indicated the following std beta for CA on LS: 1976, beta=.03 (ns) for 230 and .09 for 511, p<.05; 1980, .13 (ns) for 230 and .15, p<.01 for 338; 1984, .06 (ns) for 230 and .08 (ns) for 254; for self-rated religiosity on LS: 1976, .05 (ns) for 230 and .10, p<.05 for 511; 1980, .03 (ns) for 230 and .08 (ns) for 338; 1984, .09 (ns) for 230 and .07 (ns) for 254; for private prayer: 1976, .04 (ns) for 230 and .07 (ns) for 511; 1980, .14, p<.05 for 230 and .13, p<.05) for 338; 1984, -.04 (ns) for 230 and -.04 (ns) for 254; among dropouts, means on life satisfaction, religious attendance, and functional health were all much lower than among participants; concluded that the associations (particularly with church attendance) lose their significance because dropouts (many who drop out due to death or serious illness) are less frequent attenders who report lower levels of functional health and life satisfaction)
"Martin, C., & Nichols, R.C. (1962). Personality and religious belief. Journal of Social Psychology, 56, 3-8. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 163 undergraduate college students (104 females); 41-item religious belief scale and 54-item religious information scales were developed by authors from existing instruments; also examined church attendance and membership, parental religious beliefs and atittudes; outcome was MMPI Pa scale (paranoia), L scale (lie), and MF scale (interest), and the California F scale (authoritarianism); correlations looked at for entire group and for 50 highest and 50 lowest on religious information (about Bible and other religious issues); religious belief scores inversely related to paranoia (-.12, p=ns), unrelated to Lie scale (.02, p=ns), positively related to MF (interest) scale (.16, p=ns) in males and unrelated in females (.00, p=ns), and significantly related to California F scale (.18, p<.05), and was unrelated to religious information measure, either Bible, other, or total; among those with high religious information, MF was inversely related (-.39, p<.05) and F scale was unrelated to religious belief; among low information, PA was inversely related to religious belief (-.31, p<.05) and F scale was significantly related (.31, p<.05) (no other variables controlled); also, they summarize a dozen studies in the 1950's that show a negative picture of the religious believer)
"Martin, D., & Wrightsman, L.S. (1965). The relationship between religious behavior and concern about death. Journal of Social Psychology, 65, 317-323. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 58 adult members of three churches in middle Tennessee (33 Church of Christ, 13 Methodist, 12 Christian Church; few subjects had attended college, age range 18-75, mean 44; given Religious Participation Scale (unpublished) asking degree of extent of church attendance, personal prayer, reading of religious material, Sunday school attendance, and ratings of the intensity of their religious convictions compared to others; Broen's Religious Attitude Inventory; Sarnoff & Corwin's Feath of Death Scale and a 10-item extension of that scale; religious participation was inversely related to both fear of death scales (-.27, p<.05, and -.42, p<.05); religious attitudes (Broen's Factor I "nearness of God" and Factor II "fundamentalism vs. humanism"), however, were unrelated to death concerns on either death anxiety scales) (no controls)
"Martin et al. Psychological Reports, 66, 123-128 (no religion)
Martin, W.T. (1984). Religiosity and United States suicide rates, 1972-1978. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 40, 1166-1169. (case-control study of suicide rates and church attendance; suicide rates per 100,000 obtained for white males, white females, black males, and black females for 1972-1978 from U.S. DHHS; religious involvement was based on GSS by NORC; church attendance measured on a 0-8 scale; correlated suicide rates in four subpopulations above with their mean church attendance rates based on GSS data; results indicated a negative correlation (r(14)=-.85, p<.0001); concluded that results of this study provide support for the idea that religiosity deters suicide)
("Despair is a sin, Sister", bishop to suicidal Sister Philomena in Brides of Christ!) ;-P
"Martin-Baro, I. (1990). Religion as an instrument of psychological warfare. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 93-107. (reviews a series of small studies in El Salvador in the 1980's (based on participant observation and all studies with 100 subjects) that show almost all Catholic base communities tend to assume active and critical postures toward the social order, while a significant portion of the evangelical and Catholic charismatics tend to adopt individualistic attitudes favoring passive submission to the social order (left in the "hands of God") (Jerry Falwell's moral majority and Pat Robertson's CBN don't appear to be doing this!)
"Martinez, F.I. (1991). Therapist-client convergence and similarity of religious values: Their effect on client improvement. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 10, 137-143. (prospective cohort study of 30 subjects receiving counseling at a university counseling center in midwestern US; outcome measured by global improvement scale rated by patient and therapist (correlated .59); results indicated that if the client was more religious than the therapist, he/she was less likely to benefit from therapy than if patient were less religious than the therapist; patients also showed greater improvement if the therapist was more theologically conservative than the patient's orientation; furthermore, the therapist is more likely to rate the patient as having improved if their religious values become more like that of the therapist -- underscoring the effects that religious values have on therapy)
"Marty, M. E. (1982). Health/Medicine and the Faith Traditions: an Inquiry into Religion and Medicine. Philadelphia: Fortress Press
Marx, J.H., & Spray, S.L. (1969). Religious biographies and professional characteristics of psychotherapists. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 10, 275-288. (C/S survey of 1,371 psychiatrists, 1,465 clinical psychologists, and 1,154 psychiatric social workers in Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York about religious affiliation (total 3790); found that 21.3% were Protestant, 9.5% Catholic, 33.6% Jewish, 14.6% none, 10.6% agnostic, and 10.4% atheists; Jews and unbelievers are markedly over-represented in the mental health professions; psychologists less religiously involved than most people, and therefore underestimate the signifiance of religion in people's lives)
"Masters, K.S., Bergin, A.E., Reynolds, E.M., & Sullivan, C.E. (1991). Religious life-styles and mental health: A follow-up study. Counseling & Values 35, 211-224. (don't have it) (3-year prospective study of 60 Mormon undergraduates; persons classified as manifesting a continuous religious development vs. discontinuous development; assessed with MMPI and Religious Orientation Inventory; over time, groups tended to regress toward the mean and become more similar over time; the "continuous group" appeared slightly more conforming, conventional, and self-controlled; both groups improved on mental functioning, as well as on intrinsic religiosity over time)
"Mathew, R.J. (1995). Measurement of materialism and spiritualism in substance abuse research. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 470-475. (Mathew Materialism-Spiritualism Scale developed in India, but now being tested in Durham, NC for use in U.S.; six subscales: I - (God) belief in God or a power that guides the universe, II - (Religion) examines faith in the value of religion and religious practices, III - (Mysticism) evaluates belief in the genuineness of mystic or transcendental experiences, IV - (Spirits) studies belief in the existence of spirits and survival of the soul after death, V - (Character) examines belief in the personal value to the individual of altruism, unselfishness, kindness, morality, etc., and VI - (Psi) relates to belief in the genuineness of paranormal phenomena such as extrasensory perception and telepathy; 62 members recovering from substance abuse (most in 12-step AA and NA programs) scored significantly higher on character and mysticism than 61 general controls (although controls younger than cases, and 12-step involved cases may have exaggerated their spiritual gains or those with greater spirituality may have chosen 12-step groups); MAST positive controls had significantly lower scores than recoverying group for God, mysticism, and character; Christians had higher scores on God and religion subscales than did nonChristians and agnostics)
"Mathew, R.J., Georgi, J., Wilson, W.H., & Mathew, V.G. (1996). A retrospective study of the concept of spirituality as understood by recovering individuals. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13, 67-73. (case-control C/S study of 62 persons (from AA, NA, and general public in Durham, NC) with history of drug/alcohol abuse abstinent for 6 months or more (52% male, mean age 43); compared with a control group (n=61) (54% male, mean age 33) of persons with no history of drug/alcohol or psychiatric problems; asked to complete Mathew Materialism Spiritualism Scale as (a) they would respond now and (b) as they would have responded during time when abusing drugs/alcohol; all six MMSS subscales showed increase from pre-abuse to post-abuse among cases; among controls, pre-recovery MMSS scores were higher than in cases; comparing post-recovery scores of controls and cases, only Mysticism subscale was higher among cases)
"Maton, K.I. (1989a). The stress-buffering role of spiritual support: cross-sectional and prospective investigations. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 310-323. (C/S survey in Part I; prospective cohort study for Part II; 81 members of bereaved parents group (mean age 46, 77% women) divided into high and low stress groups (Part I); 68 high school seniors divided into high and low stress completed were surveyed twice, 5 months apart (Part II); in Part I, depression assessed with Hopkins Symptom Checklist and self-esteem with an adapted version of Rosenberg's scale; spiritual support assessed with 3-item scale asessing emotional, intimacy, and faith aspects of spiritual (religious) support; high life stress was defined by death of child within past 2 years (n=33) and low stress if death > 2 years (n=48); in Part II, college adjustment assessed with Personal-Emotional Adjustment scale and Social Adjustment scale during the first semester (Time 2); spiritual support assessed assessed at Time 1 (5 months earlier) with similar 3-item index used in Part I and church attendance was measured using a single item measure; social support was assessed with two standardized scales (diferent from Part I); pre-college depression was assessed as a baseline control with 7-item Brief Symptom Inventory; stress scale assessed 22 major life events and subjects divided into high and low life-stress samples based on scores above and below median on stress scale; in Part I, spiritual support inversely related to depression (-.23, p<.05) but not SE; effect was larger in high stress group (-.33, p<.05, for depression, and 0.42 with self-esteem, p<.01); for low-stress group, spiritual support unrelated to depression or self-esteem; in Part II, spiritual support was unrelated to emotional adjustment; for the high stress group, however, there was a relationship (p<.05); church attendance was unrelated; findings persisted after controlling for other variables -- demographics, social support, and other variables using regression)
[Maton, K.I. (1989b). Community settings as buffers of life stress? Highly supportive churches, mutual help groups, and senior centers. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17, 203-232.] (162 church members, mean age 31, surveyed on economic stress; membership in high or low support church, based on material support transactions in church; outcome life satisfaction; results ??)
"Maton, K.I., & Wells, E.A. (1995). Religion as a community resource for well-being: prevention, healing, and empowerment pathways. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 177-193.(excellent review)(churches 37% volunteer activity, $6.1 billion to community causes) This review examines the potential of religion as a community resource for well-being in primary prevention, healing, and group empowerment.
"Mattlin, J.A., Wethington, E., & Kessler, R.C. (1990). Situational determinants of coping and coping effectiveness. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 31, 103-122. (C/S survey of 1,556 adults in Detroit multistage cluster sampling design) (including only non-black married couples (n=977) in which at least one spouse was 18-65 yo); were asked how they coped with the most stressful event or situation in their lives over the past year; 55% indicated that religion was used between "some" and "a lot" for dealing with stressor; religious coping more often used when dealing with illness and death, rather than when dealing with practical or interpersonal problems)
"Maugans, T.A., & Wadland, W.C. (1991). Religion and family medicine: A survey of physicians and patients. Journal of Family Practice, 32, 210-213. (C/S survey of 115 (of 146) members of Vermont Academy of Family Physicians, and 135 patients (of 150) from 3 outpatient FP practices in Vermont; among physicians, 33% Protestant, 22% Catholic, 8% Jewish, 28% none; among patients, 37% Protestant, 50% Catholic, 1% Jewish, and 9% none; patients more likely than physicians to believe in God (91% vs. 64%, p<.01), an afterlife (60% vs 45%, p=02), to use prayer (85% vs 60%, p<.01), and to feel close to God (74% vs. 43%, p<.01); physicians more likely to believe that the physician has the right (89% vs. 52%, p<.01) and responsibility (52% vs. 21%, p<.01) to inquire about religious factors; 77% of physicians at least occasionally address religious issues with patients; most common situation where physician addressed religious matters were: counseling for terminal illness (69%), impending death (68%), death (60%), birth (48%), major surgery (47%), and major illness (36%); 40% of patients believed that physicians should discuss pertinent religious issues; most patients did not recall physicians addressing religion)
"Maugans, T.A. (1996). The SPIRITual history. Archives of Family Medicine, 5, 11-16. (Q) (describes method of taking a medically-oriented Spiritual History, with case examples)
"Mayer, J., Merril, A., & Myerson, D.J. (1965). Contact and initial attendance at an alcoholism clinic. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 26, 480-485. (193 patients contacted the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital Alcoholism clinic and accepted intake appointments; 62% kept appointment and 38% did not; examined characteristics of persons who did not show up for their appointments; none of 11 characteristics of patients collected during the initial contact predicted who would show up for appointment (including religious affiliation) (Ca, Prot, Jew)
Mayo, C.C., Puryear, H.B., & Richek, H.G. (1969). MMPI correlates of religiousness in late adolescent college students. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 149, 381-385. (C/S survey of sample of convenience; MMPI administered to 166 college students at small denominational university in Texas; religious variables included whether person considered self "religious" or "non-religious" and and whether person was a church member; defined religious person as responding positively to both questions above; found that religious male students were different from non-religious male students by their absence of schizophrenic, depressive, and psychopathic deviate attributes; religious females had lower ego strength than non-religious females) (no control variables)
"McAllister, R.J., & Vanderveldt, A. (1961). Factors in mental illness among hospitalized clergy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 132, 80-88. (examines the characteristics of clergy with mental illness (n=100) and compares them to non-clergy (n=100); worse outcomes observed (Seton Psychiatric Institute in Baltimore); duration of mental hospitalization was much longer for clergy compared with lay persons, p<.01; fewer clergy were improved at discharge (p<.01); clergy less likely to have a change of duty after discharge or be transfered to another hospital, rather than resume their occupation (p<.01); clergy more likely to have diagnoses of alcohol or anxiety disorder, compared with lay persons; and clergy more likely to have personality disorder compared with lay persons (p<.01) (note that clergy also more likely to have chronic illness, with onset of symptoms prior to age 32, p<.01, and more likely to have family members with psychiatric illness, p<.01); (no controls)
McAllister, R.J., & Vander Veldt, A.J. (1965). Psychiatric illness in hospitalized Catholic religious. American Journal of Psychiatry, 121, 881-884. (case-control study using an expanded sample from the study reported in 1961; consecutive discharges from a private psychiatric hospital: 200 Catholic religious psychiatric inpatients (100 priests and 100 nuns) compared with 200 lay patients (100 men and 100 women) and 200 non-ill Catholic religious (100 seminarians and 100 sisters without psychiatric illness); shotty, retrospective methodology; "proves" all the sterotypes affiliated with the religious; religious patients more likely to be hospitalized for misuse of alcohol or drugs or sexual "acting out"; alcoholism was predominant delinquency among clergy, acounting for 32 admissions; religious patients outnumbered lay patients 11 to 3 in admission for OCD symptoms; lay person more likely to have symptoms of depression than clergy (84 lay vs 34 clergy); 63% of religious vs 39% of lay patients were from lower SES level; 86% of clergy came from homes where parents exhibited definite psychiatric symptoms, 60% being alcoholism; 80 of lay patients vs 32 clergy were discharged within one month of hospitalization; 67 clergy vs 14 lay patients stayed over 6 months (explained this by fact that since their Superior was paying the bill, expense did not serve as motivation towards early discharge; religious patients outnumber lay patients 2:1 in personality disorders) (major defects in this study; may have been monetary motivations by hospital staff to keep these patients for long periods, given unlimited financial reimbursement; also, secular psychiatrists may have been more likely to make personality disorder diagnoses in these patients; finally, clergy clearly had more chronic symptoms (even though 50% of both clergy and lay patients had histories of prior psychiatric treatment) and came from more disrupted homes)
McAllister, R.J. (1969). The mental health of members of religious communities. International Psychiatric Clinics, 211-222. (R)
McBride, JL, Arthur, G., Brooks, R.,Pilkington, L. (1998). The relationship between eight patients spirituality and health experiences. Family Medicine, 30 (2),122-126. (Stratified, random sample of 422 patients from a suburban family practice residency clinic; used INSPIRIT to assess spirituality, Dartmouth Primary Care Cooperation Information Project (Coop) charts used to measure overall health and pain level; results indicated that overall better health was significantly related to greater spirituality (r=-.18, p<.001) (with spirituality measured as a continuous variable); less physical pain also tended to be related to greater spirituality (r=-.09, p=.08) (uncontrolled). When spirituality broken down to high, moderate, and low, moderate spirituality was associated with significantly lower pain that low spirituality (p=.008), although high spirituality was associated with nonsignificantly greater pain (curvilinear relationship).
McClure, R.F., & Loden, M. (1982). Religious activity, denomination membership and life satisfaction. Psychological Quarterly Journal of Human Behavior, 19, 12-17.] (C/S survey in mid-sized Southwestern city; convenience sample of 233 adults were solicited from participants involved in church activities (33 Catholic, 13 Jewish, 73 Baptist, 42 Mormon samples) and a control sample of 66 college students and 6 atheists (Texas); depression scale on MMPI was measure of life-satisfaction/happiness; the more time spent on religious activities, the higher the life-satisfaction/happiness (p<.001); the more religious responsibilities a person had, the greater their life satsifaction and happiness with religious associations (p<.0001) (associations uncontrolled)
McCrae, R.R., & Cost, P.T. (1986). Personality, coping and coping effectiveness in an adult sample. Journal of Personality, 54, 385-405 (CS survey of samples of 255 participants in BLSA who had reported recent negative life event, and 151 not reporting recent negative event; reported that "faith" was rated as the single most effective coping strategy (out of 27 strategies) in dealing with loss events in both samples; however, "faith"postively related to neuroticism in Study 2 (non-stressed) (r=.17, p<.05) and inversely related to openness to experience in both studies (r=-.19, p<.01) and r=-.30, p<.001); no controls.
McCullagh, E.P., & Lewis, L.A. (1960). A study of diet, blood lipis and vascular disease in trappist monks. New England Journal of Medicine, 263, 569-573. (while monks had lower serum cholesterols due to avoidance of animal fat, they were not protected from either atherosclerotic vascular disease or hypertension; in fact, the data suggested that arterial hypertension was more frequent in them than in other men of the same age in the American population; concluded that diets low in animal fat and low serum cholesterol levels are not by themselves sufficient to offset the advance of CAD and HTN)
McDowell, D., Galanter, M., Goldfarb, L., & Lifshutz, H. (1996). Spirituality and the treatment of the dually diagnosed: an investigation of patient and staff attitudes. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 15(2), 55-68. (C/S survey of 101 consecutive admissions to chemical dependency unit of hospital (mean age 37, 77% men, 46% Black and 29% Hispanic, 42% Catholic and 42% Protestant, 23% homeless; 31 nurses also surveyed (74% women, mean age 35, 32% Asian, 52% Catholic and 19% Hindu); God and Life Scale (Feigan 1964) used to assess spiritual interests (11-items tapping extrinic and intrinsic religiosity/spirituality) and 3 Gallup items (comfort from religion, attendance, and belief in God); patients asked to assess the value of 11 factors in recovery from addiction: AA, outpt prorams, medical services, comunity, spirituality, inner peace, beleif in God, trusting, a job, housing, benefits (rank-ordered in importance); nurses given similar questionnaire but asked to guess patients' responses; nurses not significantly different on religious belief or activity; however, were very different in rating value of factors in recovery: patient's rated belief in God, AA meetings, and strong sense of spirituality significantly higher than nurses predicted they would (all p<.05); nurses also underestimated that patients' interest in having more spiritual groups, p<.05))
McKinney, J.P., McKinney, K. G. (1999). Prayer in the lives of late adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 279-290. (This cross-sectional study found a relationship between identity status and frequency of praying among college students. There was also association found between identity status and commitment to religion. Qualitative analysis indicated that prayer may be a revealing approach to the psychosocial lives of late adolescents including their central concerns, temporal orientation, and the social bounds of their definition of self.)
McMordie, W.R. (1981). Religiosity and fear of death: Strength of belief system. Psychological Reports, 49, 921-922. (C/S survey of convenience sample of 120 male, 200 female undergraduate psychology students completed self-perceived religiosity checklist, followed by Templer-McMordie Death Anxiety scale; medium religiosity subjects had significantly higher death anxiety (p<.05) than the high or low religiosity groups, suggesting a curvilinear relationship)
McNamara, P.H., & St. George, A. (1979). Measures of religiosity and the quality of life. In Moberg, D.O. (ed), Spiritual Well-Being: Sociological Perspectives. Washington, DC: University Press of America, 229-236 (don't have it) (C/S survey of national random sample conducted by U of Mich SRC of 2,164 persons age 18 or older in U.S. (Quality of American Life Survey); 8-items measured religious commitment: importance of religious faith, satisfaction with religion, denominational preference, attendance, religious-mindedness, attednance at religious instruction as child, church membership, and membership in church-connected group; standard scales of life satisfaction, marital satisfaction, family life satisfaction, personal competence, general affect, and well-being; not surprising, satisfaction with religion related to most other life satisfaction outcomes; church membership was significantly related to personal competence; no other associations reported) (poor study!)
Meador, K.G., Koenig, H.G., Turnbull, J., Blazer, D.G., George, L.K., & Hughes, D. (1992). Religious affiliation and major depression. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 43, 1204-1208. (C/S survey of probability sample involving 2,850 adults participating in NIMH ECA study, Duke University site; greater rate of major depression in Pentecostals vs. other affiliations (5.4% vs. 1.7%); even after controlling for covariates, rate of major depression in Pentecostals was three times greater than for other affiliations)
Meisenhelder, J.B. (1986). Self-esteem in women: The influence of employment and perception of husbands' appraisals. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 18, 8-14. (C/S survey of stratified random sample of 163 women (85% response) ages 25-45 living at home with husbands and children in suburban Boston (mean age 35, 2.2 children, 40% Jewish, 34% Catholic, 17% Catholic); strength of religious beliefs and religious affiliation; self-esteem by 10-item Rosenberg scale; for homemakers (n=68), self-esteem correlated with two variables, one of which was religious strength, which also had the strongest correlation with self-esteem (beta .38, p<.01); for employed women, religious strength unrelated (r=.12) to self-esteem, which was predicted by quality of relationship with husband, older age, and part/full time employment; these are results from a regression model controlling for seven other predictors of self-esteem)
Mickley, J.R., Carson, V., & Soeken, K.L. (1995). Religion and adult mental health: state of the science in nursing. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 16, 345-360. (reviews the major empirical data on religion and mental health pertinent to nursing)
Middleton, W.C., & Putney, S. (1962). Religious, normative standards and behavior. Sociometry, 25, 141-152. 554 college students from Florida and California (predominantly White and Protestant) answered anonymous questionnaires (260 M, 294 F). Religiosity was measured as belief in God vs. atheistic, agnostic or deistic beliefs. The authors find no evidence that religious sanctions are essential to sustain basic social norms. Although religious individuals are more likely to believe in traditional ascetic morality than skeptics (sign test, p<.05), there was no significant difference in beliefs in social morality. Believers are less likely to engage in anti-ascetic behaviors than skeptics (sign test, p<.05). When compared with two other measures of religiosity (church attendance and importance of religious convictions to the individual), the first measure was highly correlated. Thus, the results regarding normative standards are not a function of the measure of religiosity.
Mitchell, J., Mathews, H.F., & Yesavage, J.A. (1993). A multidimensional examination of depression among the elderly. Research on Aging, 15, 198-219. C/S survey of a random sample of 868 persons aged 65-101 in eastern North Carolina to examine the impact of variables that moderate the impact of life strain on depression (ave age 75, 65% women, 90% fairly or deeply religious); life strain measured by hearing impairment, ADL limitations (13 items), and poverty status; moderator variables included social contact, social support, and belief in religious intervention in illness ("Have you been cured of an illness through prayer? Do you believe in religious miracles? How strongly do you believe that prayer will heal illness?" (score range 9 to 27); depression measured by 15-item GDS (with 3 dimensions: life satisfaction, withdrawal, and general depressive affect); regression analysis revealed that Religious Intervention was inversely related to the withdrawal subscale (-.09, p<.05), but was positively related to general depressive affect (.07, p<.05), and there was a significant interaction between ADL impairment and religious intervention (p<.05), such that general depressed affect tends to be higher among those with ADL limitations who also believe in religious intervention in illness; indepth interviews with 200 respondents revealed that there was a tendency for people with ADL limitations to believe in religious intervention to cure them; when cures do not occur, however, they blame themselves) (negative study)
Mitchell, R.E., Cronkite, R.C., & Moos, R.H. (1983). Stress, coping, and depression among married couples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 92, 433-448. (C/S survey of a convenience sample of community couples (n=157) and couples in which one person was depressed (n=157) from Stanford University Hospital and VA Hospital in Palo Alto, CA; cases and controls were matched; men were significantly older and had more years of education than women, otherwise groups were quite comparable; completed Health and Daily Living Form, Family Environment Scale, and Work Environment Scale; variables included measures of social background, negative life events, chronic strain coping responses (problem solving and emotional discharge), family supports (cohesion, expressiveness, and conflict), and depression (18 symptoms on 0-4 scale); depressed patients were more stressed and possessed fewer personal and social resources; spouses of cases fell between depresed partneres and control subjects on above factors; negative life events, coping, and family suppport were directly related to depression; refers to studies that show that social support buffers the effects of negative life events (Gottlieb 1981; Heller & Swindle 1983; House 1981; Mtichell & Trickett 1980; Mitchell et al 1982); no mention of religion)
Mittal, D., Sears, SF, Godding, PR, & Reynolds, M.D. (1999). Case report: decision-making capacity and religious conversion--a case of dialysis refusal. Annals of Long-term Care, 7,320-322. (Describe the case of a hemodialysis patient age 55 presenting with recent religious conversion, and subsequent noncompliance with hemodialysis. Working within the patient belief system and maintaining a therapeutic alliance were critical in achieving resolution of this situation)
Mollica, R.F., Streets, F.J., Boscarino, J., & Redlich, F.C. (1986). A community study of formal pastoral counseling activities of the clergy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 323-328. (list of all known clergy in south-central Connecticut was obtained from the Metropolitan New haven Directory of Churches and Synagoges; the 214 or 290 clergy who responded to the C/S survey were divided into (1) traditional clergy (Methodist, Episcopalian, Unitarian, Catholic priests, and Rabbis) (n=116), (2) evangelical clergy (Pentecostal ministers excluded) (n=13), (3) Black clergy (n=21), and (4) pastoral counselors (n=64); two-thirds of traditional clergy spent 10% or less of their time providing pastoral counseling, whereas the majority of Black and evangelical clergy spent 11%-25% of their time counseling; most clergy had not received formal training in counseling; Black ministers were more likely to counsel poor individuals, to counsel persons with drug or alcohol problems, and to be involved in crisis intervention; traditional or evangelical clergy were more likely to be sought out for help or have someone referred to them, whereas Black clergy were more likely to seek out emotionally troubled persons; only pastoral counselors charged fees ($25 or less), and only 22% charged anything; pastoral counselors made the most referrals to psychiatric professionals and evangelical clergy made the fewest; evangelical clergy primarily referred to other clergy; more than three quarters of traditional, evangelical, and pastoral counselors and more than half of Black clergy had never received a referral from the regional mental health center) (emphasizes lack of communication between clergly and mental health professionals)
Moore, T.V. (1936). Insanity in priests and religious. American Ecclesiastical Review, 95, 485-498, 601-613. (case-control study of all Catholic mental hospitals in United States, and state institutions, city hospitals, county santoria, and private institutions (77%-100% response); of the total number of priests in U.S. in 1935 (30,250) there were 135 admitted to mental hospitals, giving a rate of 446/100,000; of the total number of nuns/sisters in U.S. in 1935 (122,220), 593 were admitted, giving a rate of 485/100,000; of total number of brothers in the United States in 1935 (7,408), there were 31 admitted to mental hospitals, giving a rate of 418/100,000; for comparison, in the U.S. Navy, there were 390 admitted, giving a rate of 357/100,000; in the U.S. Army, there were 740/100,000; this should also be compared with total mental cases per 100,000 in New York (600) in 1934 and in Massachusetts in 1934 (591); the difference is significant at p<.001, suggesting lower rates of mental illness among the Catholic religious; however, they also did find a rate of 4,118/100,000 among cloistered, exclusively contemplative nuns; this is particularly true for schizophrenia in cloistered nuns, where rate was 5 times greater than expected) (suggesting that there was a tendecy of pre-psychotic schizophrenics to seek admission to the religious life); on the other hand, remarks that syphilitic mental conditions are almost unheard of among priests and nuns (sufficiently well-known for Kraeplin to make the comment "Quakers and Catholics are very seldom paretic. Krafft-Ebing saw not a single Catholic priest in 2,000 cases of parensis, but on the other hand, found that as many as 90% of officers in the army with mental disease were paretics... Up to the present paretic nuns seem never to have been observed." (p 487, E. Kraepelin. Psychiatrie II)
Morris, P.A. (1982). The effect of pilgrimage on anxiety, depression and religious attitude. Psychological Medicine, 12, 291-294. (prospective cohort study of 24 persons with serious illness (92% Catholic), average age 60, made pilgrimage to Lourdes; assessed within month preceding pilgrimage (Time 1), 1 month (Time 2) and 10 months (Time 3) after return with Beck Depression Inventory and Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; found a significant lessening of both state and trait anxiety from Time 1 to Time 2 (p<.01), Time 1 to Time 3 (p<.01), and significant decrease in state anxiety from Time 2 to Time 3 (p<.05); also significant decrease in depression from Time 1 to Time 2 and Time 1 to Time 3, but not between Time 2 to Time 3; relationships were similarly significant when stratified by sex; no other variables controlled; also compared mean religiosity scores on Religious Attitudes Scale (Poppleton & Pilkington) before and after trip; they were not significantly different)
Musick, M.A. (1996). Religion and subjective health among black and white elders. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 37, 221-237. (3-year prospective cohort study of stratified random sample of persons age 65 or over in North Carolina (EPESE); Wave I participants numbered 4,162 and Wave II numbered 2,623; used regression analysis to examine predictors of subjective health in Black and White subsamples; for 1,421 Blacks, Wave I religious devotion (private prayer/Bible reading) was significantly related to greater Wave II subjective health (beta=.07, p<.01, using residualized change analysis), but religious attendance was not after functional impairment was controlled (because Blacks with higher levels of functional impairment spend more time in devotional activities, the effect of devotion on subjective health ccannot be seen until functional impairment is controlled); among 1,202 Whites, while there was no main effect for either Wave I devotion or attendance, there was a significant interaction between both and functional impairment (beta=.06, p<.05 and beta=.09, p<.001) (high levels of functional impairment and high devotional activity or high religious attendance at Wave I are related to better perceptions of physical health (Wave II), providing evidence for the comfort role of religion) (comment: greater religious involvement among southern Blacks (especially church attendance) combined with a limited range of religious activity response categories, results in a limited dispersion of the religious variable (and less power to predict health outcomes); furthermore, church attendance is ubiquitous among southern Blacks, making decisions about how often to attend heavily influenced by social expectation and community ethos, rather than religiosity (also see Ellison 1995 and Ellison & Levin 1998))
Musick, M., Williams, D. R., and Jackson, J. S. (1998a). Race-related stress, religion and mental health among African American adults. Paper presented at the 7th International Conference on Social Stress Research, Budapest, Hungary. (C/S probability sample of 586 black community-dwelling adults in the Detroit Area Study; psychological distress was measured by a 7-item Kessler index, and was measured using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (short composite); religious variables were religious attendance and prayer; stress was operationalized in terms of discrimination (2 measures); results indicated that among men, attendance was inversely associated with negative well-being and major depression, whereas among women, attendance was associated with less psychological stress (controlled); among men, the effects of stress on mental outcomes were moderated by religious attendance; there were mixed findings for prayer; they found that men who used prayer to cope were undergoing more stress than men not using prayer to cope)
Musick, M.A., and Strulowitz, S. (1998b). Public religious activity and depressive symptomatology: a comparison of religious groups in the United States. Social Science and Medicine, under review (7-year prospective cohort study of 13, 017 community-dwelling adults in United States (10,008 in Wave II); 8 religious groups were formed: Jews, conservative Protestant, moderate Protestant, liberal Protestant, black Protestant, Catholics, Mormons, and others cycle depressive symptoms measured by 12-item CES-D (somatic retarded and depressed affect subscales); religion variables were 2 public religious index, participation in church affiliated groups, and belief in the truth of the Bible; social integration, marital status, health status and demographic variables were controls; religious attendance (wave 1) was positively related to somatic retarded activity (wave 2) in Jews (p<.01), but inversely related in conservative Protestants (p<.05), Catholics (p<.05), and Mormons (p<.05); a similar pattern of results was found for depressed affect (wave 2), with religious attendance been positively correlated with depressed affect in Jews (p<.05), and inversely related in conservative Protestants (p<.001) and Mormons (p<.05) (multiple controls)
Anyone with any more, hard, related, empirical data, feel free to leave your link in the comments box!